I、Architectural Features and Fire Hazard of Clean Factory Buildings
Clean plant because of its special requirements on the use of the decision, it is in the building structure, layout, functional division, HVAC and other aspects of the building is different from the particularity and complexity.
1, The building structure of the plant
Clean plant in the use of temperature requirements, the internal configuration in addition to temperature control equipment, the design and construction of the plant to consider a certain degree of insulation measures. But for the benefit of consideration, and now the wall part of the plant is often used at the interval between the use of insulation foam or porous plastic color plate, and rarely use brick insulation materials. This increase in the plant's fire load, making the fire resistance of the wall greatly reduced, on the other hand will also release the smoke and toxic gases when the release of polymer materials into the closed clean room, to evacuate people bring great Threaten.
2, Personnel evacuation
Clean room requirements have a good closure, with the outside world as far as possible in order to achieve the cleanliness of the plant requirements, so in any place with the outside world have taken the appropriate isolation measures. The first is the entrance of the plant, through the locker room, sterilization room, preparation room, etc. to enter the workplace, and the workplace is separated from each other, the door in the door. These doors are accessible, and the door design extends the evacuation time. Secondly, in order to reduce the external dust and the impact of temperature on the plant, the factory wall of the general window, the door less, more difficult to evacuate. Third, most of the pharmaceutical, electronics, food clean rooms are labor-intensive factories, especially the packaging workshop, assembly workshop, mostly small workshop, personnel and more easily lead to group death group of malignant accidents.
3, Equipment layout
The use of the plant function is generally in the production process or production process of the flow requirements to divide. In the pharmaceutical, chemical, electronics and other industries, this functional division of the irreplaceable is particularly prominent, which will make some dangerous processes or dangerous equipment directly affect the construction and personnel safety. In particular, some of the intermediate products produced in the use of raw materials or production processes are flammable and explosive and can not be prevented from building structures or building layouts, resulting in a significant increase in the fire hazard level of the plant.
II、Clean plant design
Clean plant fire design needs to follow the following design principles:
1,The design of a good layout of the plant
Before the construction of the plant, should be the design unit, construction units, the use of units, equipment installation or supply units on the plant interior layout of the early demonstration. First of all should be considered flammable or explosive process or equipment as far as possible outside the plant or adjacent to the plant, if there are difficulties or process needs must be arranged in the factory, should be set up by the external wall and the plant and other functional areas Separated by a solid wall, in order to take fire prevention and protection measures. Secondly, the assembly workshop, packaging workshop and other staff-intensive parts close to the external walls, and to ensure that there is a long side of the plant's external walls, on the one hand to facilitate the establishment of emergency evacuation exports, on the other hand conducive to the accident when the smoke and rescue.
2, Building components and interior decoration
Construction should be used as much as possible brick structure, such as the use of steel structure, the plant components of the fire resistance should be able to meet the requirements of two refractory grade. Insulation materials should be used as far as possible non-combustible or flame retardant materials, and try to avoid the use of foam, rubber or other porous organic polymer materials. For the internal decoration of the plant, because of its structural closure and evacuation, smoke on the unfavorable, and underground civil building fire hazard level similar to the decoration of its various parts of the requirements should be "building interior decoration design fire safety norms" In the implementation of the requirements of underground civil construction.
3, The evacuation of the plant design
The interior of the evacuation channel should be simple, to avoid the labyrinth, door door layout method. For the factory entrance design, access routes as straight as possible. If the special process needs, the entrance can not meet the evacuation, the evacuation channel should be local by the external walls, in the local by the external wall with a closed glass door as an emergency evacuation outlet, and fixed glass door at the security exit lights and crushing Glass hammer with rubber. Channel on the evacuation signs should use the light evacuation signs, the installation site according to the clean room special ventilation and exhaust emissions may be. General clean room ventilation exhaust mostly sent back to the back of the form, so the installation site should consider the use of the upper and lower interspersed set.
4, Ventilation and exhaust design
For the use
of flammable and explosive chemical dangerous materials or intermediate
products in certain sections of the plant, there shall be flammable and
explosive gases and toxic gases. The area shall be provided with an
accident exhaust system and shall be switched to the air supply system. A
central air conditioning system or a return air system shall be
provided with an emergency cut button in the evacuation walkway, duty
room and often workshop to cut off its air supply and return air to
prevent the fire from spreading. In the evacuation walkway,
the staff-intensive workshop and the important control room should be
set up smoke exhaust system, in order to facilitate the evacuation and
5, Smoke detector installation
Detector working principle: that is, by monitoring the concentration of
smoke to achieve fire prevention, smoke detector internal use of
ion-type smoke sensor, ion-type smoke sensor is a technologically
advanced, stable and reliable sensor, is widely used to the Fire alarm system, the performance is far better than the smoke resistance of the fire alarm. It
is inside and outside the ionization chamber inside the radioactive
source americium 241, ionization generated positive and negative ions,
under the action of the electric field to the positive and negative
electrodes to move. Under normal circumstances, both inside and outside the ionization chamber current, voltage is stable. Once there is smoke to flee outside the ionization chamber. Interference
with the normal movement of charged particles, the current, the voltage
will change, undermine the balance between the internal and external
ionization chamber, so the wireless transmitter to send a wireless alarm
signal, notify the remote receiving host, the alarm information will be
III、Fire emergency lighting and fire evacuation signs set
1, the minimum level of the ground shoulders should not be less than 0.5lx;
2, personnel-intensive places within the minimum level of illumination should not be less than 1.0lx;
3, the staircase in the ground below the minimum level of illumination should not be less than 5.0lx;
4, fire control room, power distribution room, etc. and the fire still need to work in other rooms when the fire emergency lighting, lighting should still be normal lighting.
5, fire emergency lighting should be set in the upper part of the wall, the roof or the top of the exit.
6, safe exit and evacuation of the door should be used above the "safe exit" as a sign;
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